dbWriteTable(jdbc.conn, name = "testdf", value =test_df)
Error in .verify.JDBC.result(s, "Unable to execute JDBC prepared statement ", :
Unable to execute JDBC prepared statement INSERT INTO testdf VALUES(?,?) ([Teradata Database]
[TeraJDBC 14.10.00.26] [Error 3932] [SQLState 25000] Only an ET or null statement is legal after a DDL Statement.)
亲爱的同事写了一个很方便用的r函数来解决这个问题，大家猛戳 -> github
依旧从BerkeleyX: ColWri2.2x Principles of Written English 抄过来的。我真的对这门课是相见恨晚！呜呜，我写英文各种罗嗦（楼下群众：你中文更罗嗦好不好？你看落园多少废话？）
what causes wordiness?
Wordiness is using more words than you need to in order to write what you mean. Everyone has a tendency to be too wordy at times. Some of the causes of this wordiness are:
- Trying to sound too formal or academic. Unfortunately, in academic writing, there are a lot of examples of wordy writing. This doesn't mean you have to model your writing on bad examples. Your readers will always appreciate if you state your ideas clearly, and using no more words than needed.
- Not knowing more precise vocabulary. For example, saying, She ran quickly to the store can be made somewhat less wordy, and more precise, by saying: She raced to the store (race=run quickly). Finding the right vocabulary can help you cut down the number of words you use. Every reduction helps, even if it's only a word or two.
- Using too many unnecessary and vague modifiers. Typically, modifiers like really, very, quite, and similar words add no meaning to your writing. If you need to modify a word, find precise modifiers. For example, instead of There's a really tall building near my house, write: There's a 50-story building near my house.
- Using too many prepositional phrases or possessives. These types of phrases can add length to your sentences, often unnecessarily. So, instead of The car belonging to Mr. Wang is in the garage [10 words], write: Mr. Wang's car is in the garage [7 words].
Writing less wordy prose
下面是抄过来的...来自：BerkeleyX: ColWri2.2x Principles of Written English。读完觉得我的英文写作真的是没受过正规教育...哎。
There are two main sources of error in diction:
1. Choosing the wrong word. This can happen because of confusion between homonyms (words that sound alike but are spelled differently), or because the meaning of the word isn't fully understood.
2. Choosing colloquial, or less formal spoken language when standard or more formal language is called for (or vice versa). In academic writing, formal diction is generally expected.
Here are 21 common errors made in writing formal diction. How many of these usage errors have you made?
1. A lot/lots of
Colloquial: Diana likes her apartment a lot.
Formal: Diana likes her apartment very much.
Colloquial: There are lots of books in our library.
Formal: There are many books in our library.
(Tip: Among involves more than two; between involves only two)
Colloquial: Discussions between our group members were often very lively.
Discussions Formal: Discussions among our group members were often very lively.
3. Around/ about
(Tip: Don't use around to indicate time, distance, or other quantity.)
Colloquial: The class usually begins around nine.
Formal: The class usually begins at about nine.
(Tip: "Badly" is not a substitute for "very much.")
Colloquial: The team wanted to win really badly.
Formal: The team wanted desperately to win.
5. Based off of
Colloquial: Based off of that information, we can move ahead with the plan.
Formal: Based on that information, we can move ahead with the plan.
(Tip: Don't use "because" after " reason.")
Colloquial: The reason for our flight delay is because of bad weather.
Formal: The reason for our flight delay is the bad weather.
7. A bunch/bunches
(Tip: Use bunch or bunches only for things that are bound or grow together, like bananas and grapes; it is not used for other countable nouns.)
Colloquial: A bunch of us are going to the movies tonight.
Formal: A group of us are going to the movies tonight.
Formal: There are three bunches of bananas on the counter.
8. Each other/one other
(Tip: Each other refers to two, one another refers to more than two.)
Colloquial: Everyone at the party wished each other a happy new year.
Formal: Everyone at the party wished one another a happy new year.
Formal: My sister and I wished each other a happy new year.
Colloquial: I hope you guys can join me at the restaurant.
Formal: I hope all of you can join me at the restaurant.
10. In / Into
(Tip: "In" means "within" or "inside", while "into" refers to the motion of going from outside to inside.)
Colloquial: Bill went in the bus station to buy a ticket.
Formal: Bill went into the bus station to buy a ticket.
(Tip: To infer is an act of thinking, to imply is an act of saying something.)
Incorrect: I saw your memo about a noon meeting. Are you inferring that we should have lunch together?
Correct: I saw your memo about a noon meeting. Are you implying that we should have lunch together?
Incorrect: The committee has reached it's goals this year.
Correct: The committee has reached its goals this year.
13. Kind of / sort of
(Tip: Don't use "kind of" or "sort of" when you mean "very" , "rather," or "somewhat." )
Colloquial: Jim was sort of angry when he learned we went to the park without him.
Formal: Jim was somewhat upset when he learned we went to the park without him.
14. Less than/fewer than
(Tip: Use less than only with uncountable nouns.)
Colloquial: There are less people in the store today than yesterday.
Formal: There are fewer people in the store today than yesterday.
15. Like / as
(Tip: Use "as" when comparing actions, "like" when comparing things.)
Colloquial: Alan wants to write a new essay, just like Sarah does.
Formal: Alan wants to write a new essay just as Sarah does.
16. Like / maybe
(Tip: Avoid using "like" and "maybe" when estimating; use "approximately", "perhaps" or "about" instead.)
Colloquial: There were like thirty people at my birthday party.
Formal: There were approximately thirty people at my birthday party.
Colloquial: Meantime, the rain continued to pour.
Formal: In the meantime, the rain continued to pour.
Formal: Meanwhile, the rain continued to pour.
18. On account of
Colloquial: On the account of the weather, our plane was late.
Formal: Because of the weather, our plane was late.
Colloquial: It has been plenty warm all week.
Formal: It has been very warm all week.
(Tip: Don't use "so" as a synonym for "therefore".)
Colloquial: Dmitry knew that I missed class, so he shared his notes.
Formal: Dmitry knew that I missed class; therefore, he shared his notes.
Colloquial: This week's homework is so difficult.
Formal: This week's homework is very difficult.
Incorrect: Do you know if their going to the party?
Correct: Do you know if they're going to the party?
Incorrect: What is there address?
Correct: What is their address?
第一次大的修正称之为Bill of Rights, 1791年通过。后面的修正案大都集中在某一段时间。
Bill of Rights 修正案1-12 十八世纪末十九世纪初
Civil War Amendments/Reconstruction Amendments 修正案13-15 十九世纪中期，civil war后
The Progressive Era Amendments 修正案16-18 二十世纪初
Bill of Rights主要的诉求是：
The Bill of Rights enumerates freedoms not explicitly indicated in the main body of the Constitution, such as freedom of religion, freedom of speech, a free press, and free assembly; the right to keep and bear arms; freedom from unreasonable search and seizure, security in personal effects, and freedom from warrants issued without probable cause; indictment by a grand jury for any capital or "infamous crime"; guarantee of a speedy, public trial with an impartial jury; and prohibition of double jeopardy. In addition, the Bill of Rights reserves for the people any rights not specifically mentioned in the Constitution and reserves all powers not specifically granted to the federal government to the people or the States.
Civil War Amendments主要是告别奴隶制度:
Their proponents saw them as transforming the United States from a country that was (in Abraham Lincoln's words) "half slave and half free" to one in which the constitutionally guaranteed "blessings of liberty" would be extended to the entire populace, including the former slaves and their descendants.
Progressive Era Amendments更多是现代化的标志：
The Sixteenth Amendment gave the federal government the power to lay and collect an income tax regardless of the source of that income.
The Seventeenth Amendment provided for the direct election of Senators by the people rather than by the state legislatures as the original Constitution called for.
The Eighteenth Amendment prohibited the import, export, transport, manufacture or sale of intoxicating beverages.
The Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote.
最有趣的就是妇女投票权了。毕竟是需要男人们投票来决定妇女有权投票。一开始是从稀缺妇女的 Wyoming Territory州开始，然后扩展到全国。